What is drug addiction or abuse? According to the NCADD, national council on alcoholism and drug dependence
Signs and symptoms of Drug Dependence:
Drug dependence involves all the symptoms of drug abuse, but also involves another element: physical dependence.
1. Tolerance: Tolerance means that, over time, you need more drugs to feel the same effects. Do they use more drugs now than they used before? Do they use more drugs than other people without showing obvious signs of intoxication?
2. Withdrawal: As the effect of the drugs wear off, the person may experience withdrawal symptoms: anxiety or jumpiness; shakiness or trembling; sweating, nausea and vomiting; insomnia; depression; irritability; fatigue or loss of appetite and headaches. Do they use drugs to steady the nerves, stop the shakes in the morning? Drug use to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms is a sign of addiction.
In severe cases, withdrawal from drugs can be life-threatening and involve hallucinations, confusion, seizures, fever, and agitation. These symptoms can be dangerous and should be managed by a physician specifically trained and experienced in dealing with addiction.
3. Loss of Control: Using more drugs than they wanted to, for longer than they intended, or despite telling themselves that they wouldn’t do it this time.
4. Desire to Stop, But Can’t: They have a persistent desire to cut down or stop their drug use, but all efforts to stop and stay stopped, have been unsuccessful.
5. Neglecting Other Activities: They are spending less time on activities that used to be important to them (hanging out with family and friends, exercising or going to the gym, pursuing hobbies or other interests) because of the use of drugs.
6. Drugs Take Up Greater Time, Energy and Focus: They spend a lot of time using drugs, thinking about it, or recovering from its effects. They have few, if any, interests, social or community involvements that don’t revolve around the use of drugs.
7. Continued Use Despite Negative Consequences: They continue to use drugs even though they know it’s causing problems. As an example, person may realize that their drug use is interfering with ability to do their job, is damaging their marriage, making problems worse, or causing health problems, but they continue to use.
Below are two lists of withdrawal symptoms. The first list is the emotional withdrawal symptoms produced by all drugs. You can experience them whether you have physical withdrawal symptoms or not. The second list is the physical withdrawal symptoms that usually occur with alcohol, opiates, and tranquilizers.
Emotional Withdrawal Symptoms
- Poor concentration
- Social isolation
Physical Withdrawal Symptoms
- Racing heart
- Muscle tension
- Tightness in the chest
- Difficulty breathing
- Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
Dangerous Withdrawal Symptoms
Alcohol and tranquilizers produce the most dangerous physical withdrawal. Suddenly stopping alcohol or tranquilizers can lead to seizures, strokes, or heart attacks in high risk patients. A medically supervised detox can minimize your withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of dangerous complications. Some of the dangerous symptoms of alcohol and tranquillizer withdrawal are:
- Grand mal seizures
- Heart attacks
- Delirium tremens (DTs)
The CVS pharmacy web site says
Withdrawal symptoms are different based on what you used. Symptoms may include:
- Marijuana—loss of appetite, chills, weight loss, trouble sleeping or sleeping too much, irritability, feeling restless or nervous
- Alcohol—shaking, hallucinations, seizures, confusion, anxiety, sweating, nausea
- Barbiturates—weakness, tremors, hallucinations, lack of appetite, seizures
- Opioids—abdominal pain or cramps, muscle aches, panic, tremors, sweating, nausea, diarrhea, fever, chills, irritability, goose pimples, runny nose, drug craving, inability to sleep, yawning
- Benzodiazepines—abdominal pain or cramps, fast heartbeat, vomiting, tremors, seizures, anxiety
- Cocaine—anxiety, feeling tired, depression
- Amphetamines—depression, irritability, sleeping too much, muscle aches, abdominal pain
Nothing about SSRI’s, but here is a very comprehensive list specifically for lexapro. Still they are labeled non addictive?
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
In order to experience the symptoms of withdrawal, one must have first developed a physical or mental dependence. This happens after consuming one or more substances for a certain period of time, which is both dose dependent and varies based upon the drug consumed. wikipedia
Lexapro withdrawal – Anorexia – No longer having a desire to eat.
Lexapro withdrawal – Apothous Stomatitis – Painful red and swollen open sores on a mucus membrane of the mouth commonly called a canker sore.
Lexapro withdrawal – Ataxia – Loss of the ability to move the body with coordination.
Lexapro withdrawal – Arterial Fibrillation – A condition of abnormal twitching of the muscles in the blood vessels that moves the oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The unusual twitching is rapid and irregular and replaces the normal rhythm of contraction of the muscle, which sometimes causes a lack of circulation and pulse.
Lexapro withdrawal – Blood Cholesterol Increased – An abnormal condition where there is a greater amount in the blood of the oily/fatty substances known as cholesterol. Cholesterol is a necessary part of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates). Because cholesterol only slightly dissolves in water, it can build up on the walls of the blood vessels, therefore blocking/decreasing the amount of blood flow, which causes blood pressure to go up. If not corrected, this condition is associated with coronary artery disease.
Lexapro withdrawal – Blood Creatinine Increased – A greater than normal number of creatinine or muscular chemical waste molecules in the blood. Creatinine plays a major role in energy production in muscles. Since creatinine levels are normally maintained by the kidneys, Blood Creatinine Increased is an indicator of kidney malfunction or failure.
Lexapro withdrawal – Blood in Stool – The blood that is in your bowel movement usually comes from any place along your digestive tract (from your mouth to your anus). The stool can appear black and foul-smelling (usually from the upper part of your digestive tract) or red or maroon-colored (usually from the large intestine area). Hemorrhoids are the usual cause for blood in the bowels.
8. Lexapro withdrawal – Bundle Branch Block Right – These are specialized cells in the upper right heart chamber and are the heart’s pacemaker. They send electrical signals to the heart that keeps it beating or contracting regularly. Normally the signal goes to the lower heart chambers at the same time through the bundle of His (hiss) on both the left and right sides of the heart, so the lower chambers contract at the same time. When the bundle is damaged on the right side, the signal does not fire at the same time as the left, which changes the pace of blood flow. This can lead to a person fainting.
Lexapro withdrawal – Cardiac Failure – A heart disorder where the heart does not function as usual and may completely stop working.
Lexapro withdrawal – Cardiac Failure Congestive – The body is asking for the heart to supply more blood than it is capable of producing and maintaining. Normally, a body can tolerate an increased amount of work for quite some time. The condition is characterized by weakness, shortness of breath, and a fluid build-up in the body tissues causing swelling.
Lexapro withdrawal – Cold Sweat – The skin is clammy and moist and you feel chilled. This is a reaction to a shock or pain as well as to fear and nervousness.
Lexapro withdrawal – Colitis – A condition where the large intestine becomes irritated from the use of the drug.
Lexapro withdrawal – Coronary Artery Disease – A condition where the blood vessels that mainly carry the blood away from the heart become clogged up or narrowed usually by fatty deposits. The first symptom is pain spreading from the upper left body caused by not enough oxygen reaching the heart.
Lexapro withdrawal – Dehydration – An extreme loss of water from the body or the organs of the body as in sickness or not drinking enough fluids.
Lexapro withdrawal – Diplopia – The condition where a person is looking a one object and instead of normally seeing just the one object he sees two. This is also call double vision.
Lexapro withdrawal – Diverticulitis – There are pouches or sacs on the inside of the intestines that look like fingers. This increases the area for the body to absorb nutrients as they pass through the intestines. These sacs become irritated and swollen and end up trapping waste that would normally be eliminated, causing pain and constipation.
Lexapro withdrawal – Dysarthria – The inability to control the mouth muscles when forming words so the words are not clearly spoken and heard.
Lexapro withdrawal – Dyslipidemia – The normal fat metabolism in the blood is interfered with.
Lexapro withdrawal – Dysphagia – Trouble swallowing or the inability to swallow.
Lexapro withdrawal – Ecchymosis – When a blood vessel breaks and creates a purple discoloration of the skin.
Lexapro withdrawal – Edema – An abnormal build up of excess fluids in the cells, tissues, and the spaces between the tissues creating swelling.
Lexapro withdrawal – Edema Peripheral – The abnormal build up of fluids in the tissues of the ankles and legs causing painless swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet. If you squeeze the swollen area it leaves an indentation on the skin for a few minutes.
Lexapro withdrawal – Ejaculation Delayed – The man is not able to release sperm either during sexual intercourse or with manual stimulation in the presence of his sexual partner in spite of his wish to do so.
Lexapro withdrawal – Ejaculation Dysfunction – A condition where the man has one or more of the following symptoms: He is not able to have an erection, not able to have an orgasm, has a decreased interest in sex, is sexually inhibited, or it is painful to ejaculate sperm.
Lexapro withdrawal – Erectile Dysfunction – Incapable of having sexual intercourse. Even though a man desires sex he is inhibited in his sexual activity and is unable to have or maintain an erection of the penis.
Lexapro withdrawal – Erythema – a skin redness caused by the swelling with blood of the tiny blood vessels of the skin as in burns.
Lexapro withdrawal – Erythematous Rash – Redness of the skin from the swelling of the tiny blood vessels with skin irritation (itching, burning, tingling, pain) and breakouts (eruptions).
Lexapro withdrawal – Esophageal Stenosis Acquired – The tube that moves food from the mouth to the stomach narrows.
Lexapro withdrawal – Exfoliative Dermatitis – The unusual and not normal condition of scaling and shedding of the skin cells. The skin is usually red colored.
Lexapro withdrawal – Face Edema – The tissues of the face become swollen.
Lexapro withdrawal – Feeling Jittery – A physical sensation of nervous unease.
Lexapro withdrawal – Gastric Irritation – An inflamed and sore stomach.
Lexapro withdrawal – Gastric Ulcer – An open, irritated, and infected sore in the wall of the stomach.
Lexapro withdrawal – Gingivitis – Sore, swollen and red gums in the mouth that bleed easily.
Lexapro withdrawal – Glaucoma – The delicate nerve to the eye, the optic nerve, becomes easily damaged with the build-up of excess fluid pressure within the eyeball. The first sign of glaucoma is loss of peripheral (side) vision. It can progress to total blindness.
Lexapro withdrawal – Hepatic Steatosis – Excessive amounts of fat in the liver.
Lexapro withdrawal – Hyperhidrosis – The triggering of an excess of sweat being produced on the soles of the feet, the palms, or the underarms which can cause embarrassment or losing grip on a pen or other items.
Lexapro withdrawal – Hyperkeratosis – An abnormal enlargement of the skin tissues causing the skin cells to increase in size.
Lexapro withdrawal – Hyperlipidemia – An abnormally high number of fat cells in the blood.
Lexapro withdrawal – Hypertriglyceridemia – Too many triglycerides in the blood.
Triglycerides are three fatty acids bound together in one molecule stored by the body and available to create high levels of energy when used.
Lexapro withdrawal – Hypoesthesia – A partial loss of sensation or general loss of awareness.
Lexapro withdrawal – Impaired Gastric Emptying – The contents of the stomach are not passed into the intestines as normal due to the stomach losing the muscular strength to do so.
Lexapro withdrawal – Increased White Blood cell Count – This is an increase in the number of cells in the blood that are responsible for the removal of bacteria and other unwanted particles. They fight disease and infection by enclosing foreign particles and removing them. An example of a disease that would increase white blood cell count would be Leukemia.
Lexapro withdrawal – Insomnia – Not able to fall asleep or sleeping for a shorter time than desired, thus not being able to properly rest and feeling un-refreshed. As a result, a person can become irritable, have difficulty concentrating and feel a lack of energy. This can be caused by stimulants such as by caffeine or drugs or by mental anxiety and stress. Mental stress can be communicated and relieved.
Lexapro withdrawal – Irritable Bowel Syndrome – A painful condition where the either the muscles or the nerves of the lower intestines, are not responding normally. This results in an alternating condition of diarrhea followed by constipation, back and forth.
Lexapro withdrawal – Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca – A condition where the outer coating of the eyeball is dry because of a decrease in the normal amount of tears in the eye. As a result, the eyeball and inside of the eyelid thickens and hardens sometimes causing the vision to be less sharp.
Lexapro withdrawal – Leukopenia – An unnaturally low number of white blood cells circulating in the blood.
cells circulating in the blood.
Lexapro withdrawal – Loose Stools – The bowel movement is runny instead of formed.
Lexapro withdrawal – Lower Abdominal Pain – A hurtful irritation of the nerve endings in the area of the hipbones housing the lower digestive tract. Pain usually means tissue damage.
Lexapro withdrawal – Lymphadenopathy – The lymph nodes, where the immune cells are located, become larger than is normal because of a high concentration of white blood cells.
Lexapro withdrawal – Macular Degeneration – The gradual loss of central vision, which is the sharpest vision while peripheral eyesight, is unaffected.
Lexapro withdrawal – Maculopathy – An abnormal condition of the yellow spot of the eye, which is located in the center of the inner lining of the eyeball and connected to the main nerve to the eye and is responsible for sharp vision.
Lexapro withdrawal – Mania – Unusually irrational, excessive and/or exaggerated behavior or moods ranging from enthusiasm, sexuality, gaiety, impulsiveness and irritability to violence.
Lexapro withdrawal – Melena – Abnormally darkly colored stools as a result of hemorrhaging in the digestive tract where the blood has interacted with the digestive juices creating the dark color in the bowel movement.
Lexapro withdrawal – Micturition Urgency – A sudden desire to urinate usually followed by leakage.
Lexapro withdrawal – Mood Swings – An emotional shifting as from a state of happiness to a state of depression for a period of time.
Lexapro withdrawal – Myocardial Infarction – The blood going to the heart is delayed or stopped causing middle muscle tissue in the heart wall to die.
Lexapro withdrawal – Nasopharyngitis – Irritation, redness and swelling tissues in the nose and the tube leading from the mouth to the voice box as well as the tubes leading to the ears.
Lexapro withdrawal – Nephropathy – An abnormally functioning or diseased kidney.
Lexapro withdrawal – Nervousness – Jumpy, jittery, anxious, and troubled with an irritable temperament.
Lexapro withdrawal – Night Sweats – The water-salt, waste product the skin releases is called sweat or perspiration. With night sweats you become wide awake in the middle of the night shivering and cold and wet with your sheets/pajamas soaked in perspiration making it difficult to go back to sleep.
Lexapro withdrawal – Nightmare – Dreams that make you afraid or leave feelings of fear, terror, and upset long after waking up.
Lexapro withdrawal – Orgasm Abnormal – Unable to have an orgasm with normal sexual stimulation.
Lexapro withdrawal – Oropharyngeal Swelling – A swelling in the area from the soft part of the roof of the mouth to the back of the mouth.
Lexapro withdrawal – Pain in Extremity – A painful feeling in the legs, arms, hands, and feet.
Lexapro withdrawal – Pharyngolaryngeal Pain – Pain in the area of the respiratory tract (organs of breathing) from the throat to the voice box and above the windpipe.
Lexapro withdrawal – Photopsia – A condition where a person see lights, sparks or colors in front of your eyes.
Lexapro withdrawal – Photosensitivity Reaction – An exaggerated sunburn reaction that is not normal in proportion to the amount of exposure to the light.
Lexapro withdrawal – Pollakiuria – Urinating much more frequently than normal – as often as once every five to fifteen minutes.
Lexapro withdrawal – Pressure of Speech – A condition where the individual cannot voice his ideas fast enough with the pressure of there being not enough time to say it.
Lexapro withdrawal – Pruritic Rash – Extremely itchy, red, swollen bumps on the skin.
Lexapro withdrawal – Pyrexia – Fever or the increase in body temperature that is usually a sign of infection.
Lexapro withdrawal – Retinal Detachment – The thin layer lining the back of the eyeball (the retina) detaches from the back of the eyeball. This thin layer is like the film of a camera because it sends the images a person views to the brain. When it detaches it causes a reduced ability to see.
Lexapro withdrawal – Rigors – Shivering or shaking of the body as if chilled, preventing normal responses.
Lexapro withdrawal – Skin Ulcer – An open sore or infected skin eruption with swelling, redness, pus, and irritation.
Lexapro withdrawal – Sleep Disorder – These are a list of sleep disorders such as teeth grinding, insomnia, jet lag, sleep walking, abnormally falling asleep during the middle of a conversation after a full night’s rest, uncontrolled body motions keeping one awake, etc.
Lexapro withdrawal – Suicide, Completed – An attempted attack on oneself that is life threatening results in death.
Lexapro withdrawal – Upper Respiratory Tract Infection – Where the organs of breathing near the mouth such as the nose and sinuses, become infected and are usually treated by antibiotics.
Lexapro withdrawal – Urinary Hesitation – Hard to start or hard to continue emptying one’s bladder.
Lexapro withdrawal – Urinary Incontinence – Urinating without intending to do so because of a weakening of the muscles in the hip area from the drug affecting the nerves or the drug blocking a persons thinking process.
Lexapro withdrawal – Urinary Retention – The inability to completely empty the bladder despite having the urge to do so. This can lead to infections or damage to the urinary organs.
Lexapro withdrawal – Urine Flow Decreased – Dehydration of the body causing a lesser flow of urine than normal with the body reabsorbing the waste.
Lexapro withdrawal – Urine Output Decreased – A condition where the output of urine produced in a 24-hour period is less than 500 ml.
Lexapro withdrawal – Weight Decreased – Unintentional weight loss.
Lexapro withdrawal – Weight Increased – An unusual, usually rapid weight increase